The Canon of Marcion the heretic
Marcion believed that the God of the Old Testament was an evil creator god whom Jesus came to destroy, and he only accepted the gospel of Luke, rejecting all other books of the Bible except Luke Paul’s writings. Marcion was significant for two reasons: he rejected the Old Testament as a document of an alien religion, and he taught that Jesus had come to destroy it.
Marcion was not a major influence on the formation of the New Testament; he was simply a Marcionite, and others quickly identified him as a dangerous heretic. Marcion’s concern was to exclude books that he disapproved of from his “canon.” Marcion saw the New Testament as a continuation of a central theme in Paul: the supersession of the law by the gospel.
What books are in the Old Testament canon?
The Old Testament books are listed as follows in Canon xxxvi from the Synod of Hippo (393): Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers; Deuteronomy; Joshua the Son of Nun; The Judges; Ruth; The Kings, iv. books; The Chronicles, ii. books.
Who was Marcion and how did he influence the formation of the canon?
Some scholars believe Marcion was the first to establish the New Testament canon because he was the first to publicly present it, namely the Gospel of Luke and the ten Epistles of Paul; however, this article argues the opposite by examining the text and context of Marcion’s writings and those of his contemporaries.
How many books were approved by the church in the final canon of the Bible?
Most people agree on a list of twenty-seven books, which includes the canonical Gospels, Acts, letters attributed to various apostles, and Revelation, though there are many textual differences (for example, Eastern and Middle Eastern traditions do not consider John’s Revelation to be canonical).
What is the first five books of the Bible?
Be-reshit, Shemot, Va-yikra, Be-midbar, and Devarim are the five books that make up the Torah, which correspond to Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy in the English Bible.
What is the anti Marcionite prologue?
The short introductory prologues prefixed to the Gospels of Mark, Luke, and John in some 40 MSS of the Vulgate are no longer thought to be directed against Marcion.
What did the Gnostics believe?
Gnostics believed that direct knowledge of the supreme divinity in the form of mystical or esoteric insight was the most important aspect of salvation; many Gnostic texts deal with illusion and enlightenment rather than sin and repentance.
What was the criteria for the New Testament canon?
The early church seemed to have three main criteria for recognizing books that were God-inspired and thus canonical: apostolic origin, church recognition, and apostolic content.
Why is the book of Enoch not in the Bible?
The survival of I Enoch is due to the fascination of marginal and heretical Christian groups, such as the Manichaeans, with its syncretic blending of Iranian, Greek, Chaldean, and Egyptian elements, which led to its exclusion from the biblical canon.
Who decided what books go in the Bible?
Eusebius, a Christian historian who lived in the early 300s, provided one of the first lists of which books were considered legitimate and which were borderline bogus, categorizing them as recognized, disputed, spurious, and heretical.
Did King James change the Bible?
In 1604, King James I of England authorized a new translation of the Bible with the goal of resolving some thorny religious differences in his kingdomu2014and solidifying his own poweru2014but in doing so, he ended up democratizing the Bible.
Why were some books removed from the Bible?
The texts may have only been known to a few people, or they may have been left out because their content does not fit well with the content of the other Bible books; some of the apocrypha were written later and thus were not included; the Authorized King James Version referred to these books as ‘Apocrypha.’
Who Really Wrote the Bible?
The books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy (the first five books of the Bible and the entirety of the Torah) were all written by Moses in around 1,300 B.C., according to both Jewish and Christian dogma. However, there are a few problems with this, such as the lack of evidence that Moses ever existed.