Recovered: a lost portion of the book of Samuel
The story of Saul’s first victory has always been murky, but a recent Dead Sea scroll of Samuel clarifies the situation. Most English Bibles translate 1 Samuel 10:24-11:2 as “And Nachash the Ammonite went up” according to the received Hebrew text.
Bodily mutilation was a common enough practice in the ancient Middle East, but this punishment was reserved for covenant breakers and rebels. Later, in 2 Samuel 10, we find that King David had diplomatic relations with Nachash.
The missing paragraph
A paragraph of 53 Hebrew words was missing from an early copy of Samuel, which was an ancestor of our Hebrew Bible and happened early enough to affect copies from which ancient translations were made. The missing words were discovered on a Dead Sea scroll discovered in Qumran cave number four.
The problems solved
The Dead Sea Scrolls have contributed to our understanding of what the original text of the Old Testament of our Bible must have read. Nachash is given the full introduction: “Nachash, king of the children of Ammon,… ” Scroll shows that our Bible’s expression “as one dumb” is the result of two errors.
Did David destroy the Amalekites?
Nothing was missing: young or old, boy or girl, plunder or anything else the Amalekites had taken, so David took all the flocks and herds and drove them ahead of the other livestock, proclaiming, “This is David’s plunder.”
What happened to Prophet Samuel’s sons?
The sons were eventually killed in a battle at Aphek, and when Eli learned that (1) his sons were dead, and (2) the Ark of the Covenant had been taken by the enemy, the Philistines, he fell off his chair, broke his neck, and died.
How old was Samuel when Eli died?
Samuel was 98 years old when he died, having served as a judge in Israel for 40 years. His daughter, Phinehas’ wife, was pregnant and about to give birth when he died.
How old was Samuel when the Ark was taken?
Samuel, according to the first-century Jewish historian Josephus, was about 11 years old when he first heard it from Eli and went to ask him what he wanted.
What did the Amalekites do wrong?
During the Hebrews’ Exodus from Egypt, the Amalekites harassed them and attacked them at Rephidim near Mount Sinai, where they were defeated by Joshua; they were also among the nomadic raiders defeated by Gideon, and Samuel condemned them to annihilation.
Who was it in the Bible that led David to the Amalekites?
David receives Philistine Ziklag David asked for “a place in one of the country towns,” and was given Ziklag, which he used as a base for raids against the Geshurites, Girzites, and Amalekites, which he conducted outside of Achish’s supervision.
How many sons did Eli have?
Hophni and Phinehas were Eli’s sons.
How many sons did Jesse have?
Jesse had eight sons, according to the Book of Samuel, with Eliab, Abinadab, and Shammah being the first three and David being the youngest. The Book of Chronicles names seven sons of Jesse: Eliab, Abinadab, Shimea, Nethanel, Raddai, Ozem, and David, as well as two daughters, Zeruiah and Abigail.
Who was Joel’s mother in the Bible?
Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH (or Yahweh), and El (god), and has been translated as “one to whom YHWH is God,” that is, a worshiper of YHWH. He is only mentioned by name once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to that book, as the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1).
Why did Samuel never cut his hair?
Manoah’s wife was to abstain from all alcoholic beverages and unclean foods, and her promised child was not to shave or cut his hair; he was to be a Nazirite from birth, according to the Angel of the Lord.
Who is first prophet in the Bible?
Enoch, the seventh in line from Adam, is the first prophet mentioned in the Bible. Not much is said about Enoch in Genesis other than his lineage, but what is said is instructive.
How was God called Samuel?
The LORD called Samuel a third time, and Samuel got up and went to Eli, saying, “Here I am; you called me.” Then Eli realized that the LORD was calling the boy, and the LORD came and stood there, calling, “Samuel! Samuel!” as before.
Why did God let the ark be captured?
God wanted His people to know Him and to follow Him; He didn’t want them to carry the ark around to defeat their enemies; instead, He wanted them to ask for and follow His instructions on how to defeat their foes.
How long did the Philistines have the Ark of God?
However, God punished the Philistines with sickness and other plagues, and they wisely returned their spoils to the Israelites, who settled the ark for 20 years at Kiriath Jearim.
Why did uzzah touch the ark?
When the oxen stumbled, causing the ark to tilt, Uzzah steadied it with his hand, in direct violation of the divine law, and was killed by the Lord for his error.