Four Books and Five Classics – Wikipedia
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The Four Books were chosen by Zhu Xi in the Song dynasty to serve as a general introduction to Confucian thought, and they became the core of the official curriculum for civil service examinations, which began in the Sui dynasty and required candidates to quote and apply Confucius’ words.
The Five Classics are five pre-Qin Chinese books that are part of the traditional Confucian canon. Several of the texts were already well-known during the Warring States period, and these texts became part of state-sponsored curriculum during the Western Han dynasty. The Classic of Music is sometimes considered the sixth classic, but it was lost in the Book Burning.
Authorship of the Classics
Confucius was thought to have written or edited these classics for most of the last 2,000 years, until the Neo-Confucian sage Zhu Xi (1130u20131200) fixed the texts of the Four Books and wrote commentaries whose new interpretations became accepted as Confucius’.
The Canonical Books of Confucianism, by Donald Jordan (University of California, San Diego). Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Four_Books_and_Five_Classics” Ulrich Theobol (Chinese Literature u2013 alphabetical index) at ChinaKnowledge u2013 universal guide for China studies.
What are the five Confucian classics?
FROM 136 BC TO 1905, the study of the Five Classics of the u201cConfucianu201d canonu2014theOdes, theDocuments, theRites, theChanges, and theSpring and Autumn Annalsu2014formed at least part of the curriculum tested by government examinations required of nearly all candidates for the Chinese imperial throne.
Who wrote the five classics?
Throughout most of the imperial period, the Five Classics associated with Confucius served as the core curriculum in the education of Chinese literati, and Michael Nylan examines these ancient texts in depth, demonstrating how their influence spread across East Asia.
When did Confucius write the five classics?
The Four Books and Five Classics (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ssh Wjng) are the authoritative books of Confucianism written in China before 300 BC. They are the most important classics of Chinese Confucianism.
What are the five classic and Confucian vision?
The Wujing (Five Classics), which can be described in terms of five visions: metaphysical, political, poetic, social, and historical, was a concrete manifestation of the Confucian tradition’s coming of age.
How is Confucius similar to Jesus?
When compared to Confucius, the birth of Jesus is more mysterious because Christians believe that Christ was conceived through the Immaculate Conception (Arnal), making him a son of God, whereas Confucius is simply a human being with no connection to divine powers.
Does Confucianism have a God?
There are no Confucian gods, and Confucius is worshipped as a spirit rather than a god, but there are Confucianism temples, which are places where important community and civic rituals take place.
What did Confucius say about humanity?
Confucius defined humanity as “loving the people” or “loving the masses extensively,” which led him to provide equal opportunities education and teach in dialogue with his disciples.
What is the oldest of the five classics called?
- The Analects.
- The Doctrine of the Mean.
- Book of Documents.
- Book of Odes.
- Book of Rites.
- Book of Changes.
- Spring and Autumn Annals. The Spring and Autumn Annals is the longest of the Five Classics and is a historical chronicle of the State of Lu.
Is there a heaven in Confucianism?
The concept of Heaven (Tian,) is pervasive in Confucianism; Confucius had a deep faith in Heaven and believed that Heaven overruled human efforts, as evidenced by his Analects, which list many of Heaven’s attributes.
What does Confucius say?
“By nature, men are nearly alike; it is by custom and habit that they are set apart,” Confucius says. “When you have faults, do not be afraid to abandon them.” You’ve probably heard of Confucius or seen his name linked to fortune cookie sayings on miniature scrolls.
What did Confucius believe?
Confucius was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and teacher who believed that a lifetime of learning and a moral outlook benefits all peopleu2013and the society they live in. Confucius was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and teacher whose message of knowledge, benevolence, loyalty, and virtue was the main guiding philosophy of China for thousands of years.
What are the major beliefs of Confucianism?
Confucianism’s worldly concern is based on the belief that humans are fundamentally good, and that they can be taught, improved, and perfected through personal and communal effort, particularly self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organized world.
What is Confucian virtue?
The virtues “zhong” (loyalty), “xiao” (filial piety), “ren” (benevolence), “ai” (affection), “xin” (trustworthiness), “yi” (righteousness), “he” (harmony), and “ping” (peace) are among the “eight cardinal virtues” in Confucianism.
Who were the main Confucian teachers and the dates they lived?
Confucius, Mencius, and Xun Zi built Confucianism’s doctrinal framework over a 270-year period beginning around 500 BC.
- Confucius (circa 551u2013479 BC)
- Mencius (circa 371u2013289 BC)
- Xun Zi (circa 313u2013230 BC)
- The Five Classics
- The Development of Confucianism Under Emperor Wudi (141u201387 BC)
How is Daoism different from Confucianism?
In general, whereas Daoism values nature and what is natural and spontaneous in human experience to the point of dismissing much of China’s advanced culture, learning, and morality, Confucianism values human social institutions, such as the family, school, community, and state.